Анализ даты/времени ISO8601 (включая часовой пояс) в Excel


Мне нужно проанализировать формат даты/времени ISO8601 с включенным часовым поясом (из внешнего источника) в Excel/VBA до обычной даты Excel. Насколько я могу судить, Excel XP (который мы используем) не имеет процедуры для этого встроенного, поэтому я думаю, что я смотрю на пользовательскую функцию VBA для разбора.

даты и время в формате iso8601 похож на одного из этих:

2011-01-01
2011-01-01T12:00:00Z
2011-01-01T12:00:00+05:00
2011-01-01T12:00:00-05:00
2011-01-01T12:00:00.05381+05:00
6   51  

6 ответов:

существует (разумно) простой способ проанализировать временную метку ISO без часового пояса, используя формулы вместо макросов. Это не ровно что задал оригинальный плакат, но я нашел этот вопрос при попытке разобрать временные метки ISO в Excel и нашел данное решение полезно, поэтому я подумал, что поделюсь им здесь.

следующая формула будет анализировать метку времени ISO, опять же без часового пояса:

=DATEVALUE(MID(A1,1,10))+TIMEVALUE(MID(A1,12,8))

Это даст дата в формате с плавающей запятой, которую затем можно отформатировать как дату, используя обычные форматы Excel.

много Googling ничего не получилось, поэтому я пишу свою собственную рутину. Размещение его здесь для дальнейшего использования:

Option Explicit

'---------------------------------------------------------------------
' Declarations must be at the top -- see below
'---------------------------------------------------------------------
Public Declare Function SystemTimeToFileTime Lib _
  "kernel32" (lpSystemTime As SYSTEMTIME, _
  lpFileTime As FILETIME) As Long

Public Declare Function FileTimeToLocalFileTime Lib _
  "kernel32" (lpLocalFileTime As FILETIME, _
  lpFileTime As FILETIME) As Long

Public Declare Function FileTimeToSystemTime Lib _
  "kernel32" (lpFileTime As FILETIME, lpSystemTime _
  As SYSTEMTIME) As Long

Public Type FILETIME
    dwLowDateTime As Long
    dwHighDateTime As Long
End Type

Public Type SYSTEMTIME
    wYear As Integer
    wMonth As Integer
    wDayOfWeek As Integer
    wDay As Integer
    wHour As Integer
    wMinute As Integer
    wSecond As Integer
    wMilliseconds As Integer
End Type

'---------------------------------------------------------------------
' Convert ISO8601 dateTimes to Excel Dates
'---------------------------------------------------------------------
Public Function ISODATE(iso As String)
    ' Find location of delimiters in input string
    Dim tPos As Integer: tPos = InStr(iso, "T")
    If tPos = 0 Then tPos = Len(iso) + 1
    Dim zPos As Integer: zPos = InStr(iso, "Z")
    If zPos = 0 Then zPos = InStr(iso, "+")
    If zPos = 0 Then zPos = InStr(tPos, iso, "-")
    If zPos = 0 Then zPos = Len(iso) + 1
    If zPos = tPos Then zPos = tPos + 1

    ' Get the relevant parts out
    Dim datePart As String: datePart = Mid(iso, 1, tPos - 1)
    Dim timePart As String: timePart = Mid(iso, tPos + 1, zPos - tPos - 1)
    Dim dotPos As Integer: dotPos = InStr(timePart, ".")
    If dotPos = 0 Then dotPos = Len(timePart) + 1
    timePart = Left(timePart, dotPos - 1)

    ' Have them parsed separately by Excel
    Dim d As Date: d = DateValue(datePart)
    Dim t As Date: If timePart <> "" Then t = TimeValue(timePart)
    Dim dt As Date: dt = d + t

    ' Add the timezone
    Dim tz As String: tz = Mid(iso, zPos)
    If tz <> "" And Left(tz, 1) <> "Z" Then
        Dim colonPos As Integer: colonPos = InStr(tz, ":")
        If colonPos = 0 Then colonPos = Len(tz) + 1

        Dim minutes As Integer: minutes = CInt(Mid(tz, 2, colonPos - 2)) * 60 + CInt(Mid(tz, colonPos + 1))
        If Left(tz, 1) = "+" Then minutes = -minutes
        dt = DateAdd("n", minutes, dt)
    End If

    ' Return value is the ISO8601 date in the local time zone
    dt = UTCToLocalTime(dt)
    ISODATE = dt
End Function

'---------------------------------------------------------------------
' Got this function to convert local date to UTC date from
' http://excel.tips.net/Pages/T002185_Automatically_Converting_to_GMT.html
'---------------------------------------------------------------------
Public Function UTCToLocalTime(dteTime As Date) As Date
    Dim infile As FILETIME
    Dim outfile As FILETIME
    Dim insys As SYSTEMTIME
    Dim outsys As SYSTEMTIME

    insys.wYear = CInt(Year(dteTime))
    insys.wMonth = CInt(Month(dteTime))
    insys.wDay = CInt(Day(dteTime))
    insys.wHour = CInt(Hour(dteTime))
    insys.wMinute = CInt(Minute(dteTime))
    insys.wSecond = CInt(Second(dteTime))

    Call SystemTimeToFileTime(insys, infile)
    Call FileTimeToLocalFileTime(infile, outfile)
    Call FileTimeToSystemTime(outfile, outsys)

    UTCToLocalTime = CDate(outsys.wMonth & "/" & _
      outsys.wDay & "/" & _
      outsys.wYear & " " & _
      outsys.wHour & ":" & _
      outsys.wMinute & ":" & _
      outsys.wSecond)
End Function

'---------------------------------------------------------------------
' Tests for the ISO Date functions
'---------------------------------------------------------------------
Public Sub ISODateTest()
    ' [[ Verify that all dateTime formats parse sucesfully ]]
    Dim d1 As Date: d1 = ISODATE("2011-01-01")
    Dim d2 As Date: d2 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T00:00:00")
    Dim d3 As Date: d3 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T00:00:00Z")
    Dim d4 As Date: d4 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T12:00:00Z")
    Dim d5 As Date: d5 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T12:00:00+05:00")
    Dim d6 As Date: d6 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T12:00:00-05:00")
    Dim d7 As Date: d7 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T12:00:00.05381+05:00")
    AssertEqual "Date and midnight", d1, d2
    AssertEqual "With and without Z", d2, d3
    AssertEqual "With timezone", -5, DateDiff("h", d4, d5)
    AssertEqual "Timezone Difference", 10, DateDiff("h", d5, d6)
    AssertEqual "Ignore subsecond", d5, d7

    ' [[ Independence of local DST ]]
    ' Verify that a date in winter and a date in summer parse to the same Hour value
    Dim w As Date: w = ISODATE("2010-02-23T21:04:48+01:00")
    Dim s As Date: s = ISODATE("2010-07-23T21:04:48+01:00")
    AssertEqual "Winter/Summer hours", Hour(w), Hour(s)

    MsgBox "All tests passed succesfully!"
End Sub

Sub AssertEqual(name, x, y)
    If x <> y Then Err.Raise 1234, Description:="Failed: " & name & ": '" & x & "' <> '" & y & "'"
End Sub

Я бы разместил это как комментарий, но у меня недостаточно репутации - извините!. Это было действительно полезно для меня-спасибо rix0rrr, но я заметил, что функция UTCToLocalTime должна учитывать региональные настройки при построении даты в конце. Вот версия, которую я использую в Великобритании-обратите внимание, что порядок wDay и wMonth перевернуты:

Public Function UTCToLocalTime(dteTime As Date) As Date
  Dim infile As FILETIME
  Dim outfile As FILETIME
  Dim insys As SYSTEMTIME
  Dim outsys As SYSTEMTIME

  insys.wYear = CInt(Year(dteTime))
  insys.wMonth = CInt(Month(dteTime))
  insys.wDay = CInt(Day(dteTime))
  insys.wHour = CInt(Hour(dteTime))
  insys.wMinute = CInt(Minute(dteTime))
  insys.wSecond = CInt(Second(dteTime))

  Call SystemTimeToFileTime(insys, infile)
  Call FileTimeToLocalFileTime(infile, outfile)
  Call FileTimeToSystemTime(outfile, outsys)

  UTCToLocalTime = CDate(outsys.wDay & "/" & _
    outsys.wMonth & "/" & _
    outsys.wYear & " " & _
    outsys.wHour & ":" & _
    outsys.wMinute & ":" & _
    outsys.wSecond)
  End Function

мои даты в форме 20130221T133551Z (ГГГГММДД не'HHMMSS такие), поэтому я создал такой вариант:

Public Function ISODATEZ(iso As String) As Date
    Dim yearPart As Integer: yearPart = CInt(Mid(iso, 1, 4))
    Dim monPart As Integer: monPart = CInt(Mid(iso, 5, 2))
    Dim dayPart As Integer: dayPart = CInt(Mid(iso, 7, 2))
    Dim hourPart As Integer: hourPart = CInt(Mid(iso, 10, 2))
    Dim minPart As Integer: minPart = CInt(Mid(iso, 12, 2))
    Dim secPart As Integer: secPart = CInt(Mid(iso, 14, 2))
    Dim tz As String: tz = Mid(iso, 16)

    Dim dt As Date: dt = DateSerial(yearPart, monPart, dayPart) + TimeSerial(hourPart, minPart, secPart)

    ' Add the timezone
    If tz <> "" And Left(tz, 1) <> "Z" Then
        Dim colonPos As Integer: colonPos = InStr(tz, ":")
        If colonPos = 0 Then colonPos = Len(tz) + 1

        Dim minutes As Integer: minutes = CInt(Mid(tz, 2, colonPos - 2)) * 60 + CInt(Mid(tz, colonPos + 1))
        If Left(tz, 1) = "+" Then minutes = -minutes
        dt = DateAdd("n", minutes, dt)
    End If

    ' Return value is the ISO8601 date in the local time zone
    ' dt = UTCToLocalTime(dt)
    ISODATEZ = dt
End Function

(преобразование часового пояса не тестируется, и нет обработки ошибок в случае неожиданного ввода)

на ответ by rix0rrr отлично, но он не поддерживает смещения часового пояса без двоеточия или только с часами. Я немного улучшил функцию, чтобы добавить поддержку этих форматов:

'---------------------------------------------------------------------
' Declarations must be at the top -- see below
'---------------------------------------------------------------------
Public Declare Function SystemTimeToFileTime Lib _
  "kernel32" (lpSystemTime As SYSTEMTIME, _
  lpFileTime As FILETIME) As Long

Public Declare Function FileTimeToLocalFileTime Lib _
  "kernel32" (lpLocalFileTime As FILETIME, _
  lpFileTime As FILETIME) As Long

Public Declare Function FileTimeToSystemTime Lib _
  "kernel32" (lpFileTime As FILETIME, lpSystemTime _
  As SYSTEMTIME) As Long

Public Type FILETIME
    dwLowDateTime As Long
    dwHighDateTime As Long
End Type

Public Type SYSTEMTIME
    wYear As Integer
    wMonth As Integer
    wDayOfWeek As Integer
    wDay As Integer
    wHour As Integer
    wMinute As Integer
    wSecond As Integer
    wMilliseconds As Integer
End Type

'---------------------------------------------------------------------
' Convert ISO8601 dateTimes to Excel Dates
'---------------------------------------------------------------------
Public Function ISODATE(iso As String)
    ' Find location of delimiters in input string
    Dim tPos As Integer: tPos = InStr(iso, "T")
    If tPos = 0 Then tPos = Len(iso) + 1
    Dim zPos As Integer: zPos = InStr(iso, "Z")
    If zPos = 0 Then zPos = InStr(iso, "+")
    If zPos = 0 Then zPos = InStr(tPos, iso, "-")
    If zPos = 0 Then zPos = Len(iso) + 1
    If zPos = tPos Then zPos = tPos + 1

    ' Get the relevant parts out
    Dim datePart As String: datePart = Mid(iso, 1, tPos - 1)
    Dim timePart As String: timePart = Mid(iso, tPos + 1, zPos - tPos - 1)
    Dim dotPos As Integer: dotPos = InStr(timePart, ".")
    If dotPos = 0 Then dotPos = Len(timePart) + 1
    timePart = Left(timePart, dotPos - 1)

    ' Have them parsed separately by Excel
    Dim d As Date: d = DateValue(datePart)
    Dim t As Date: If timePart <> "" Then t = TimeValue(timePart)
    Dim dt As Date: dt = d + t

    ' Add the timezone
    Dim tz As String: tz = Mid(iso, zPos)
    If tz <> "" And Left(tz, 1) <> "Z" Then
        Dim colonPos As Integer: colonPos = InStr(tz, ":")
        Dim minutes As Integer
        If colonPos = 0 Then
            If (Len(tz) = 3) Then
                minutes = CInt(Mid(tz, 2)) * 60
            Else
                minutes = CInt(Mid(tz, 2, 5)) * 60 + CInt(Mid(tz, 4))
            End If
        Else
            minutes = CInt(Mid(tz, 2, colonPos - 2)) * 60 + CInt(Mid(tz, colonPos + 1))
        End If

        If Left(tz, 1) = "+" Then minutes = -minutes
        dt = DateAdd("n", minutes, dt)
    End If

    ' Return value is the ISO8601 date in the local time zone
    dt = UTCToLocalTime(dt)
    ISODATE = dt
End Function

'---------------------------------------------------------------------
' Got this function to convert local date to UTC date from
' http://excel.tips.net/Pages/T002185_Automatically_Converting_to_GMT.html
'---------------------------------------------------------------------
Public Function UTCToLocalTime(dteTime As Date) As Date
    Dim infile As FILETIME
    Dim outfile As FILETIME
    Dim insys As SYSTEMTIME
    Dim outsys As SYSTEMTIME

    insys.wYear = CInt(Year(dteTime))
    insys.wMonth = CInt(Month(dteTime))
    insys.wDay = CInt(Day(dteTime))
    insys.wHour = CInt(Hour(dteTime))
    insys.wMinute = CInt(Minute(dteTime))
    insys.wSecond = CInt(Second(dteTime))

    Call SystemTimeToFileTime(insys, infile)
    Call FileTimeToLocalFileTime(infile, outfile)
    Call FileTimeToSystemTime(outfile, outsys)

    UTCToLocalTime = CDate(outsys.wMonth & "/" & _
      outsys.wDay & "/" & _
      outsys.wYear & " " & _
      outsys.wHour & ":" & _
      outsys.wMinute & ":" & _
      outsys.wSecond)
End Function

'---------------------------------------------------------------------
' Tests for the ISO Date functions
'---------------------------------------------------------------------
Public Sub ISODateTest()
    ' [[ Verify that all dateTime formats parse sucesfully ]]
    Dim d1 As Date: d1 = ISODATE("2011-01-01")
    Dim d2 As Date: d2 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T00:00:00")
    Dim d3 As Date: d3 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T00:00:00Z")
    Dim d4 As Date: d4 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T12:00:00Z")
    Dim d5 As Date: d5 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T12:00:00+05:00")
    Dim d6 As Date: d6 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T12:00:00-05:00")
    Dim d7 As Date: d7 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T12:00:00.05381+05:00")
    Dim d8 As Date: d8 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T12:00:00-0500")
    Dim d9 As Date: d9 = ISODATE("2011-01-01T12:00:00-05")
    AssertEqual "Date and midnight", d1, d2
    AssertEqual "With and without Z", d2, d3
    AssertEqual "With timezone", -5, DateDiff("h", d4, d5)
    AssertEqual "Timezone Difference", 10, DateDiff("h", d5, d6)
    AssertEqual "Ignore subsecond", d5, d7
    AssertEqual "No colon in timezone offset", d5, d8
    AssertEqual "No minutes in timezone offset", d5, d9

    ' [[ Independence of local DST ]]
    ' Verify that a date in winter and a date in summer parse to the same Hour value
    Dim w As Date: w = ISODATE("2010-02-23T21:04:48+01:00")
    Dim s As Date: s = ISODATE("2010-07-23T21:04:48+01:00")
    AssertEqual "Winter/Summer hours", Hour(w), Hour(s)

    MsgBox "All tests passed succesfully!"
End Sub

Sub AssertEqual(name, x, y)
    If x <> y Then Err.Raise 1234, Description:="Failed: " & name & ": '" & x & "' <> '" & y & "'"
End Sub

Я знаю, что это не так элегантно, как модуль VB но если кто-то ищет быструю формулу, которая учитывает часовой пояс после"+", то это может быть так.

= DATEVALUE(MID(D3,1,10))+TIMEVALUE(MID(D3,12,5))+TIME(MID(D3,18,2),0,0)

изменится

2017-12-01T11:03+1100

до

2/12/2017 07:03:00 AM

(местное время с учетом часового пояса)

очевидно, что u может изменить длину различных секций обрезки, Если у вас есть миллисекунды, а также, если вы получили больше времени после +.

использовать sigpwned формула, если вы хотите игнорировать часовой пояс.